This article titled Today in History – January 1 – India and World is geared towards those people who want a quick look at the most important historical events that took place on this very day in both India and World. The reason why we have segregated the article into India and World separately is that the section on India will be of particular help for civil services aspirants. They can check out this segment to quickly recall the history lessons they have learned as a part of their UPSC exam preparations. So, let us begin…
What Happened On This Day in History – January 1
Today in History – January 1: “India”
1664: Surat campaign was started by Shivaji on this day. The campaign eventually ended on January 9. Surat was plundered. It was the first direct conflict between British and Indian forces.
1862: Indian Penal Code was enforced on this day.
1877: UK’s Queen Victoria was proclaimed as Empress of India on this day.
1879: The author of the book – ‘A Passage to India’ – E M Forster (an English Novelist) – was born on this day.
1894: Satyendra Nath Bose – a theoretical physicist of international repute – was born in Calcutta. He worked closely with the likes of Albert Einstein, Marie Curie and Louis de Broglie. He worked primarily in the field of quantum mechanics and is known for some great works like Bose-Einstein Condensate, Bose-Einstein Statistics etc.
1920: International Association of Rotary Clubs of USA gave the charter to Rotary Club of Calcutta.
1944: Edwin Lutyens – the architect responsible for designing of India Gate, New Delhi and Rashtrapati Bhavan – died on this day.
1948: India filed a complaint with United Nations Security Council against Kashmir invasion by so-called Pakistani Tribesmen.
1949: In Kashmir, Ceasefire was declared on this day.
1955: Shantiswaroop Bhatnagar – renowned chemical expert – died on this day.
1972: Starting January 1, privileges and privy purses of former rulers of princely states of India were abolished.
1973: General Insurance Business Nationalisation Bill came into effect from January 1. It was originally passed by Lok Sabha on August 28 in 1972. General Insurance was nationalized on this day.
1976: Starting January 1, commercial advertisements were introduced in TV programs.
1978: “Emperor Ashoka” – the first Boeing 747 jumbo jet of Air India – fell into the Arabian Sea off the coast of Bombay, killing all 213 people on the plane.
Today in History – January 1: “World”
1700: Russia started using the Anno Domini era by discarding Byzantine Empire’s Anno Mundi era.
1772: London Credit Exchange Company issued the first Traveler’s Cheque that could be used in 90 different European cities.
1801: Completion of the legislative union of Kingdom of Ireland and Kingdom of Great Britain resulting in formation of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
1804: French rule came to an end in Haiti. This made Haiti the second independent country in North America (first was USA) and also the first Black Republic.
1806: Abolition of French Republican Calendar.
1808: Importation of slaves banned by United States.
1881: Panama Canal’s French construction was started by Ferdinand de Lesseps.
1885: Proposal for Standard Time given by Sanford Fleming was adopted by 25 nations.
1899: In Cuba, Spanish rule came to an end.
1912: Republic of China was established on this day.
1934: The infamous Alcatraz Prison became the Federal Prison of United States.
1934: Nazi Germany passed the law known as “ Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring”.
1942: 26 nations signed the Declaration of United Nations.
1945: Operation Bodenplatte was launched by German Luftwaffe during WWII. It was a massive operation but it failed. The purpose of the operation was to completely knock out the air power of the Allied forces in northern Europe in a single blow.
1948: British Railways was formed by nationalizing railway network in Britain.
1958: On this day, the European Economic Community was established.
1971: In America, advertisement of cigarettes on television was completely banned.
1989: Montreal Protocol was enforced on this day, banning the use of those chemicals which were contributing towards Ozone layer depletion.
1994: NAFTA or North American Free Trade Agreement came into effect on this day.
1995: World Trade Organization came into effect on this day.
1999: Euro currency was introduced in 11 member nations of the European Union.