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30 Facts About Black Holes

The most intriguing, the most inspiring and the most elusive thing in the entire universe known to mankind is the Black Hole. There are hundreds of questions about Black Holes that are yet to be answered.

Some of them have been answered while some others are still within theoretical frameworks and remaining keep giving birth to numerous science fictions we encounter on a day-to-day basis. So, what exactly are these Black Holes?

What do we know about these entities? Here are 30 interesting facts about Black Holes that will make your jaws drop but before we give you the rundown, it is necessary that we start with the basic question of ‘what is a Black Hole?’

Image taken from NASA website

Black Hole Explained!

Black Holes are nothing but remnants of dead stars. Not all stars convert into Black Holes. Our sun will never become one! Only stars those are 10 to 15 times bigger than sun become Black Holes.

We will not really attempt to explain what really happens but we will only say that bigger stars explode at the end of their life (that is, when the burn out all the fuel they have) and this phenomenon is known as Supernova Explosion.

When a star dies and this explosion occurs, the majority of the total mass of star is thrown out into the void of the space while only a cold remnant stays back. This remaining part of the star does not experience any fusion reaction that used to give it life.

In a typical star, nuclear fusion is responsible for generation of energy and pressure. This is an outward pressure that neutralizes the gravitational pull created by the star’s own mass. After the supernova explosion, fusion reaction is completely absent. This means no outward pressure is created.

As a result, the cold remnant starts collapsing on itself because of its own mass. Because there is nothing that opposes this gravitational pull, the cold remnant eventually collapses on itself and becomes infinitely dense.

At this point the gravitational pull becomes so intense that even light fails to escape from it. Because light cannot escape, it becomes completely dark and invisible, giving rise to what we call Black Hole.

Now that we have a fair idea of how a Black Hole is formed, it is time that we learn some interesting facts about Black Holes. Are you ready? Let’s go for a ride.

Black Hole Facts: 1-10

1. The force of gravity is so high in Black Holes that it leads to gravitational time dilation. This is a phenomenon where time slows down because of gravitational pull. Interesting fact is that time dilation can also occur when velocity increases. This is known as velocity time dilation and is generally experienced by astronauts. We will cover this in some other list. Coming back to Black Holes, time completely stops at the center of Black Holes.

2. Black Holes have something known as event horizon! There is some heavy scientific explanation behind this but let us put it in simple words. Event horizon refers to a ‘point of no return’. Every Black Hole has a boundary. Any object outside that boundary is perfectly safe. But if, an object crosses the event horizon, it will have no other option but to fall into the Black Hole. Once sucked in, that object can never reappear.

3. Black Holes are literally the densest objects to live in universe (at least that’s what is known to humans). So, how dense can a Black Hole get? Imagine what kind of density you will get if you try to squeeze in the entire mass of Earth in a small (we mean miniscule) sphere with a DIAMETER of 9 millimeters! That’s the type of density we are talking about.

4. Black Holes can keep growing because anything (gas, liquid or solid matter) that enters the event horizon gets sucked in. Thus, Black Holes can grow infinitely large and they are known as supermassive Black Holes.

5. Stephen Hawking theorized that even Black Holes emit something and that they emit radiation. This radiation is emitted by the mass of the Black Holes. According to Hawking, Black Holes keep losing their mass in form of radiations and eventually they evaporate!

6. Black Holes eventually shrink down to the size smaller than the size of an electron (a sub-atomic particle). At this stage it reaches a size what is known as Planck Length. This length is actually the quantum size limit. Theoretically nothing can become smaller than this and there is actually no instrument available that can measure Planck Length. The value of Planck Length is 1.61619926 x 10-35 meters.

7. The event horizon is just the beginning of the Black Hole. It is not the core of the Black Hole. The core of the Black Hole is called Singularity. This point of Singularity is the ultimate destruction point. Absolutely nothing can survive at that point.

8. Closer to a Black Hole, things simply get distorted. The immense gravitational pull of the Black Holes have the ability to distort even space. This distortion gets profound because Black Holes spin rapidly. This distortion is nothing but an infinite regression of distortions.

9. Stars spin and they continue doing so even after their death. This means they keep spinning even when they become Black Holes and these Black Holes in turn keep spinning faster and faster as they keep evaporating and eventually shrink to Planck Length. Even when they achieve the Planck Length, they keep spinning. Along with this spin and their gravitational force, they distort everything around them (actually within their event horizon).

10. If something travels faster than light, it can actually escape Black Hole. Unfortunately, there is no such thing known to mankind.

Black Hole Facts: 11-20

11. At the point of Singularity, laws of Physics don’t exist because it is literally not possible to conceive anything that will have infinite density but zero volume.

12. Size and mass of a Black Hole are directly proportional. The size of a Black Hole is not really measurable. But there is an alternate way of measuring that. It is known as Schwarzschild Radius. This is the radius of the event horizon of a Black Hole. The bigger the radius, the bigger is the Black Hole. The bigger the Black Hole, the denser it is. Which means that the point of Singularity of a bigger Black Hole has more mass than a Black Hole that is comparatively smaller (that is one with smaller Schwarzschild Radius).

13. There are some scientific equations which end up suggesting that every Black Hole contains one universe. If that is true (this hasn’t been proven yet), everything we know about Black Holes will change. AND, if that is true, we are right now living inside a Black Hole. ‘We’ here refers to the entire universe that keeps eluding us!

14. It is very likely that supermassive Black Holes exist at the center of almost every galaxy. Now that galaxies have a nasty habit of colliding with each other occasionally, even Black Holes do the same! When two Black Holes bump into one another, one of these two gets kicked out of its galaxy.

15. The Black Hole that is closest to our Earth is 16 quadrillion kilometers away from our planet. This is actually 1,600 light years (one light year is the distance traveled by light in one year).

16. Our Milky Way galaxy (the galaxy of which our Solar System is a part) has a supermassive Black Hole at its center. It is known as Sagittarius A* (‘*’ stands for Star) How big is it? Well, its point of Singularity has a mass equivalent to the mass of 4 million solar masses! One solar mass is the total mass of our good old Sun. This behemoth and gigantic sucker is at a very safe distance from us. It is approximately 30,000 light years away from us.

17. The Black Hole at the center of our Milky Way has, according to the scientists, came to life after a star exploded 2 million years ago! That event is termed as Seyfret Flare.

18. The radiation from the Seyfret Flare 2 million years ago was a 100 million times more powerful than the remaining radiation we experience today. Scientists say that so big was the explosion that it was actually visible from Earth!

19. According to scientists, Black Holes don’t just suck, they also emit material. The speed of this emission is nearly the same as the speed of the light. Is it just a theory? Actually some scientists have really found a Black Hole emitting material. This Black Hole is at a distance of 1.5 billion light years from our Earth and is located in a different galaxy. This discovery was made using an array of advanced radio telescopes. So powerful is the jet that material emitted by the Black Hole is blown right out of the galaxy.

20. Recent studies have revealed that even the supermassive Black Hole living at the heart of our galaxy, the Milky Way, emits material. These materials are nothing but energetic particles that are shot out in space along the spin axis of the Black Hole creating an impression of a straight beam right through the center of the Black Hole.

Black Hole Facts: 21-30

21. Black Holes are very much like spheres and not funnels as illustrated in many text books.

22. If a human is dropped in a Black Hole, the person will not likely get crushed to death. He or she will more likely stretch to death. Why? That’s because, whatever part of the person’s body enters the event horizon first will experience immense gravitational pull that will accelerate the speed with which that part falls compared to the speed of the remaining part of the body. This will lead to stretching and hence, death!

23. According to many modern astronomers, not all Black Holes are similar. As a matter of fact, these astronomers actually came up with three distinct classifications (based on the amount of energy put out by the Black Holes when then distort space) which are: Simple spinning Black Holes, Electrical Black Holes and Spinning electrical Black Holes.

24. Black Holes are terribly noisy. It is true that sound waves cannot travel through space vacuum. So, how can one claim that Black Holes are noisy? Scientists say that use of special instruments (we don’t really know what kind of instruments) will reveal staticky sound inside the event horizon. This sound appears when the immense gravitational pull increases the speed of the particles (that appear once the object is broken down into sub-atomic particles after entering the event horizon) nearly to the speed of light. Particles traveling at that speed produce the staticky sound.

25. Any matter that enters the event horizon of a Black Hole is broken down into subatomic particles. These particles, according to scientists, have the ability to create life-supporting elements like carbon and iron.

26. Because gravitational time dilation takes place near Black Holes, if anyone can take a spaceship and orbit around the Black Hole (of course along the event horizon) and then travel back to Earth, the person will actually see future. This happens because time close to the Black Hole passes very slowly compared to that on Earth and by the time the person travels back to Earth, he or she will actually outlive his or her present (the time when the person left Earth)!

27. It is not necessary that only stars will give birth to Black Holes. Any object that can shrink endlessly on itself into a point that is infinitesimally small, it will eventually get a gravitational pull that is ridiculously high and hence, become a Black Hole. Look carefully at your car keys, even they can qualify for this!

28. Some scientists say that Black Holes actually limit the number of stars present in the whole universe. This theory pops out from the fact that Black Holes actually suck in gas and every other known matter and because gas is vital for the formation of stars, the number of Black Holes limit the number of stars.

29. Now, Black Holes are suckers and they are very very real. Some scientists believe that if there are Black Holes that suck, there can be something exactly opposite that will endlessly spew or spurt out matter into this universe. These objects are known as white holes. There was a time when white holes were pure myth and 100% hypothetical. In 2006 however, scientists observed unusual bursts of gamma rays from an object somewhere in our universe. This object may be the first evidence of a real white hole.

30. Albert Einstein didn’t really discover Black Holes. In 1916, Einstein only revived a theory that was developed long ago a scientist by the name John Mitchell. In 1783, Mitchell actually gave the theory of Black Holes after he started wondering whether there could be a gravitational force that could prevent even light particles from escaping the pull.

Sources: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

18 thoughts on “30 Facts About Black Holes”

  1. Hello!
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  2. Your article was really nice and it was very useful as like your attitude. In the above article, you have mentioned that our sun can never become a black hole but if it can become one what will happens to our earth???

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    • First thing first, Sun will never become a black hole because it doesn’t contain enough mass to collapse under its own gravity. If we assume that something magical happens and Sun becomes a black hole, the new ‘black hole Sun’ will not have any more mass that it already has now. On top of that, the new ‘black hole Sun’ will not be any closer to our Earth.

      With the new ‘black hole Sun’ having the same mass as the original Sun, the gravitational pull on Earth will remain the same. So, Earth will remain where it is now.

      You need to know that the gravitational pull of a black hole depends on the mass of the black hole and the distance of the black hole from any object.

      The only thing that will change is that Earth will become a frigid cold land with no light. Why so? Light cannot escape black holes. So, the new ‘black hole Sun’ will not give any light and Earth will be robbed of any light it gets from the usual Sun.

      No light means? No plants can exist. No photosynthesis. Plants will die and so will the herbivores. Absence of herbivores will kill carnivores. Absence of both plants and herbivores (and hence carnivores) will kill omnivores as well. Life on Earth as we know now will come to an end.

      Absence of light will also reduce temperatures of the earth’s atmosphere and the surface. It will be extremely cold that most of the life forms cannot survive.

      Now you may ask why Sun will not have more gravitational pull when it turns into a black hole? You see, can turn any object into a black hole (theoretically) as long as you can compress the entire mass of the object into an infinitesimally small point. For instance, Earth will become black hole if you can compress the whole mass of Earth into the size of a marble. Even if you do that, will the original Earth and compressed Earth have different gravitational pulls? No! Because both the actual Earth and the marble-size Earth will have same mass. So, the gravity of the compressed Earth will never increase. It is true even in case of our Sun.

      Reply
  3. 1A – Time completely stops??? Sorry; no way… time do not stop… what we may say is time probably for some one out of the event horizont… stop. But it do not stop! or change in any way for someone who (if it was somehow possible) goes inside and till the black hole center… time there (for that person) will remain the same exact time velocity. Even for the outside observers… time for that person there seams to be stoped.

    2A – Black holes have in did one event horizon we can compare it to one orbit equilibrium that if braked… then the orbit will be breaked, producing one unsopable gravity (in) atraction. The same happens whit the time dilatation phenomena where in accordance whit what i say here… time do not have change for the traveler it self… but only for the observers that he have lefft behind.

    5A – Well, Black holes can not loose mass… just because they have loose all they are allowed to loose when they turn in supernovas. So they are not allowed to have any kind of loose of matter… mateherfact they loose some radiation only and only when they have some new mass adiction to the primordial mass they where formed. So they loose radiations that are provided from the new mass adiction, but they do it only by the poles (north and south) not in all random direction as ussualy happens to allmost other bodies in the universe… i say to almost all other because the black holes have some identical way to loose radiation as the quasars and probablly other unknowned bodies that loose radiations only by the poles sides…

    6A – Here we may have something to make us think out of the box… and this is something that we may (at one first look) see as completely strange. What i see here is one total mass compretion… maybe the matter do really get till the planck compretion… but matter there in that state does something strange… matter compressed to that point… continues to spin and as far as i see it… it spins even to one greatter and larger velocity (of the spinning) so. Matter here does something unexpected… something amaysing… it get´s one giroscopic effect… it flats… it strateches in the equatorial line and it increases the gravity field area… what i mean is it covers whit is gravity one larger and much more huger horizont zone.
    Any way we may have here some different possibility´s refering to black holes they can and probablly are not all the same… here we may have the massive ones and the other ones… the massive ones do this flat gyroscopic effect responsiblle for the coesion of galaxies… the second type… well is what i call the erratic… this erratic ones are (probably) the less massive ones that do not have the Gyroscopic effect even they also can have spin… but they do not have the mass enought to arrest any bodies in one longer field zone or horizon zone… this bodies have the horizon bounderie but not the horizon gravitional force enought to sustain or form one galaxie arround them. This bodies exist and are not fixed in one place… so they move and they swollow any mass that came in they way…. i think this objects work more like our tornados they spin and they move… by other side the central galatic black holes are fixed or arrested them selfs to the mass they drag in theyer howne horizon field.
    This do not mean that this massive black holes can not or do not move also… but they have one much more limited allowence of movment… because they are (by the gyroscopic force) tied to the masses they have arrested in theyer force field… or gravitational field.

    7A – Nothing less the matter new state… something like one planck density mass is there and spins there.

    8A – That is no doubt one fact. Anything that gets closer to one black hole will no doubt get distorted (desintegrated) because the energy contained in the black hole center is energy / Mass…what i mean is that mass there is the same as primordial state energy and any energy (when massive) creates gravitional atraction (force) that acts on any bodie of mass or other mass energy bodies… this atraction is what we call gravity and this gravity is what we may see as getting the origin in the energy… so mass is equal to energy. Just the same but in one different state. However the most important point in all this disruption of any bodie that cames near one black hole is that the information contained in that object will and as to stay there… so the basic point in all this is… all universal sates learn and keep the learned information on them… and that can never be reversed or lost.

    10A – Radiation from the poles. This radiation adicted and drived from other other masses aded afhter the primordial starting point of the black hole… this radiation that scapes from the poles (north and shouth) have the capacity to scape from the black hole because they have ritched the exact center of the black hole center… so they scape in one death zone… this death zone is the point in the center where the gravity of gyroscopic effect is totally loosed… is one zone of non force… so this radiations scape from this point at one mega huge velocity and they achive the capacity to travel to many… many light years distante from the ignition point.

    11A – Please physics still have existence there… the problem is that it works in many different ways or different effects that for us at the moment we do not have yet the knoledge to know… so we do not simply have the tools enought to understand what is going on there… but please do not make this imperfection of us… till the point of the: physics do not exist there…kkkk Even we do not know how and how it can happen the true simple and stupid is: the near absolut zero volume and the almost infinit density mater of fact… exist and we can say for sure that it is there.

    12A – I agree, So probablly in the center galatic black holes we may probably may say that the mass of that black hole can be proportional to the mass of the gyroscopic effect or event horizon zone field gravity effect. What i mean is the same as: the mass of the black hole it self is (probably) proportional to the mass that it drags on is field gravitional effect.

    13A – Well, that is maybe acceptablle… please read the text i write (the physics small text). Better read it because it takes too many pages to expose.

    14A – kkk when someone presents this supratext like it was that simple… i say: kkkkkk please do not make me laught. That simplicity is too much for one theme like this… two black holes bump into one another and one is kicked out… of its galaxie…kkk. This issue is far more complicated and far more uneasy to expose. If two black holes colide (it will depend from the black holes sizes and from the black holes kind because galatic ones are one class the other class are the wandering ones… they look (to us the same) but they are totally different in theyer force and in theyer field effects… but if two black holes colide and if they are similar in type anf mass number… then before that this two galaxies have many… many disruptions before the central points where ritched… and also this colision could have many different conclusions or terminus… depends from too many factors… like the north polirization of itch one and the mass that itch one drags in is gyroscopic field… and… and… but probablly they will never colide one whit the other… because the change in the mass gravitional field will probably force one or both of them to change theyer equilibrated and stoped position to one desiquilibrated and movment action. so… if it happens probablly it could happen between two wandering category black holes or between one wandering black hole and one galatic black hole… if this happen probablly the massive one or fixed galatic category one will react and deppending from also one inumerous factors or variations… but probablly it will change position from the way of the other… but if the other wandering one could somehow rich the galatic one… then probablly the more massive one will swollow the smaller one making him one adiction to is howne mass… producing one more larger amd more massive balck hole and that will probably also create desiquilibriuns in all other nearest galaxies.

    15A – Please never say or make afirmations about something that no one really knows. We may have or not many or only few of this bodies near our planet even we do not know they are there.

    18A – Yes, probably it could be visible from heart… if heart exists in that time… but sorry at that moment in time… no earth have existence… our planet as we know it only starts to have existence (as planet) very long time afhter the formation of our central black hole.

    21A – Spheres??? That for me depends from the black hole class or type… the wondering ones i may agree whith that spheres format… but not for the galatic ones… for this galatic class, i propose one flat circle format… more like one gyroscop format… and that produces one gyroscopic long amplified force effect enought to cover and mantain the unity in one galaxie.

    22A – Please do not make this kind of possibility´s… just because that is one huge waiste of time whit something that is not in any way possible… better say… any human… imagining that someone could get near to one real balck hole… better say… he will no doubt die! How… well…please imagine the scenarious that you desire… because he will be death any way… (but not the information on him).

    23A – Probablly they are correct and probablly ther are much more classes then this ones… well whit this i agree and i would like to have much more information about what they present about this.

    24A – Probablly they are somehow correct… but i do not see this as one “noise” or “sound” it must be probablly more like one “VIBRATION” that we can feel if we go there.

    25A- No doubt this particuls can probablly construct any other matter or energy that we know or that exists in reality… because what we have in there is primordial matter / energy… so we have all.

    26A – The future??? No! The past??? No! The present? Yes. Time is totally different from what we think… time is one extra dimention included and present in all other possiblle dimentions… so time does not move… does not move front or back… because time do not have existence… all it does is: EFFECT. So no front and no back… time is only one simple effect that works deppending from where we are and the velocity that we are moving… but it only acts differentelly to others not to us… because to us ti is and will always be the same perception and affect on us… but in relation to others… when we are the observer or the observed… then time sims to change, In reality it never changes… all that happens is: the serrounding reality seams to have change faster and slower than ussualy we are used to see it.

    27A – Truth!

    29A – No… Just and simply… NO! What we have is the underlayer black holes… something that makes us to have reads and perceptions about the existence of somethings (that we will never find) because theye are one effect produced in one invisible layer (dimention) and this objects have the capacity to produce the effect in similar way as they have existence in our dimention… one exemple of it is the called dark energy… nothing there… less the effect that keeps telling us… something is there. Please read the “Physics small text”

    Regards and sorry for me direct and maybe strange opinions

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