Like it or hate it, history is here to stay and even worse, it is being created constantly. However, the present or current history is not something we will be dealing with in this article titled Today in History – December 13 – India and World. We will look into the distant past and note down the most important historical events that took place on this day in history. This article will come in handy for aspirants of civil services and those who appear in other all-India competitive exams like banking exams. This article mentions only and only the events and nothing more or nothing less. No description of the event will be mention here. So, let’s get started…
What Happened On This Day in History – December 13
Today in History – December 13: “India”
1232: Iltutmis captured Gwalior. He was third ruler of Delhi Sultunate of Mamluk Dynasty.
1675: Guru Tegh Bahadur – the 9th Sikh Guru – was executed at Delhi’s Chandni Chowk. He was beheaded under the orders of Aurangzeb – the then Mughal Emperor. Some historians however claim that the date of his execution was 11th December and not 13th December.
1772: Nayaran Rao became the Peshwa of Maratha Empire on this day. He was however murdered the very next year on August 30. He was killed at the age of 18.
1972: Basant – the first agricultural aeroplane was produced on this day.
2001: Terrorists attached to Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammad attacked the Indian Parliament – the very seat of Indian democracy. 5 terrorists attacked and killed 14 people before they were neutralized. One of them was Afzal Guru who was hanged on February 9, 2013.
Today in History – December 13: “World”
1636: Three militia regiments were organized by the Massachusetts Bay Colony for defending the colony from attacks of Pequot Indians. The regiments eventually became the foundation of National Guard of United States.
1643: During English Civil War, the Battle of Alton took place on this day in Hampshire.
1937: During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the infamous Battle of Nanking took place and during the battle on this day, Japanese forces managed to capture the city of Nanjing. After that, the Nanking Massacre took place in which the Japanese soldiers rapes hundreds of thousands of women and killed several thousand civilians.
1938: Bergedorf district in Germany’s Hamburg saw the opening of Neuengamme concentration camp.
1939: During WWII, the Battle of River Plate took place in which a German panzerschiff Admiral Graf Spee (a heavy cruiser) engaged with three British cruisers named HMS Exeter, Ajax and Achilles. Exeter that was a heavy cruiser was badly damaged and Ajax and Achilles took light damage while Graf Spee took a critical but not heavy damage. The battle ended with British victory.
1943: During WWII, the Massacre of Kalavryta took place in Greece. The German troops were the perpetrators.
1962: Relay 1 – an active repeater communications satellite and the first of its kind was launched by NASA and place into orbit.
1972: During Apollo Program, Harrison Schmitt and Eugene Cernan of Apollo 17 started the final EVA (Extra-vehicular activity) or Moonwalk. As of today, the two remain the last people to have ever set foot on Moon.
1974: Within the Commonwealth of Nations, Malta became a republic.
2003: Under Operation Red Dawn during Iraq War, former Iraqi President – Saddam Hussein – was captured near Tikrit – his home town.